The family systems theory is a theory introduced by Dr. Murray Bowen that suggests that individuals cannot be understood in isolation from one another, but rather as a part of their family, as the family is an emotional unit. Families are systems of interconnected and interdependent individuals, none of whom can be understood in isolation from the system.
The family system
According to Bowen, a family is a system in which each member had a role to play and rules to respect. Members of the system are expected to respond to each other in a certain way according to their role, which is determined by relationship agreements. Within the boundaries of the system, patterns develop as certain family member's behavior is caused by and causes other family member's behaviors in predictable ways. Maintaining the same pattern of behaviors within a system may lead to balance in the family system, but also to dysfunction. For example, if a husband is depressive and cannot pull himself together, the wife may need to take up more responsibilities to pick up the slack. The change in roles may maintain the stability in the relationship, but it may also push the family towards a different equilibrium. This new equilibrium may lead to dysfunction as the wife may not be able to maintain this overachieving role over a long period of time.
There are eight interlocking concepts in Dr. Bowen's theory:
Triangles: The smallest stable relationship system. Triangles usually have one side in conflict and two sides in harmony, contributing to the development of clinical problems.
Differentiation of self: The variance in individuals in their susceptibility to depend on others for acceptance and approval.
Nuclear family emotional system: The four relationship patterns that define where problems may develop in a family. - Marital conflict - Dysfunction in one spouse - Impairment of one or more children - Emotional distance
Family projection process: The transmission of emotional problems from a parent to a child.
Multigenerational transmission process: The transmission of small differences in the levels of differentiation between parents and their children.
Emotional cutoff: The act of reducing or cutting off emotional contact with family as a way managing unresolved emotional issues.
Sibling position: The impact of sibling position on development and behavior.
Societal emotional process: The emotional system governs behavior on a societal level, promoting both progressive and regressive periods in a society.